世界电影史

作者: 周传基

 
 
世界电影史 续二

时间和实验证明电影摄影机只不过是以类比为准--而这种类比是错的。场景-故事发生地点-要舞台的基本单位,因为剧场的空间是那样的固定。观众坐在这边,人物在那边,而那布景是固定在动作的后面的空间里。但是电影的空间却是完全灵活的,只有银幕是固定不变的,而银幕上的动作却不是固定不变的。导演们发现电影的基本单位是镜头,而不是景场,镜头可以以各种方式组合起来形成场景,而场景又可以以许许多多方式来并置,平行地发展。地点的统一是舞台的可以说是基本的和实际可行的原则,但是电影冰需要这样用。更为实用的原则是,用一系列合适的视听形象(在中国通称长画面)来产生作为一个整体的电影的预期的叙事连贯体,来产生预期的含义,和恰当的情绪紧张性。到了无声电影的末期,这一原则不仅是一个发现,而且已经演示了出来。

Time and experimentation revealed that the camera was anchored by analogy alone–and that the analogy was false. The scene–the locale–is the basic unit of the stage because space in the theatre is so concrete. The audience sits here, the characters play there, the scenery is fixed in space behind the action. But space in the film is completely elastic; only the screen is fixed, not the action on it. Directors discovered that thet unit of a film is the shot, not the scene, that shots can be joined together in any number of combinations to produce whole scenes and that scenes can be varied and juxtaposed and paralleled in any number of ways. Unity of place, a rather basic and practical principle of the stage, does not apply to the movie. More applicable is a principle of an appropriate succession of images that produces the desired narrative continuity, the intended meaning, and the appropriate emotional tension of the film as a whole. By the end of the silent era this principle had not only been discovered but demonstrated.

录音的发明对前三十年的发现提出了质疑。对于跟舞台的类比再次提出了怀疑,因为舞台演员,舞台剧作家,舞台导演和舞台特技再次蜂涌到电影里来。于是再一次发现是错的。就象以前在视觉上以舞台的空间为准,现在声音也是以舞台为准。声音是从说话的人的嘴里出来的,你既看见说话的人,也看见他的嘴。可是在电影里,当话声是从说话的人的嘴里说出来的时候,它却有自由表现任何画面。声画的同期录音也允许声画分离。此外,由于电影摆脱了空间的局限,因此在使用声音上有更大的自由:自然音响效果,音乐伴奏,失真的效果,主观的思想活动和诸如此类的效果。如果说,无声电影的历史可以概括为产生了一环套一环的视觉形象,那么有声电影的历史是产生一环套一环的视觉形象与声音的结合的种种不同的方式。

The discovery of sound raised doubts about the discoveries of the preceding thirty years. Once again the analogy with the stage was suspected; once again stage actors, stage writers, stage directors, and stage techniques flooded the movies. And once again, the analogy was found to be false. Just as the stage is anchored visually in space, so too is it anchored by sound. Sounds come from the speaker\’s mouth; you see both speaker and mouth. But movies were free to show any kind of picture while the words came from the speaker\’s mouth. Synchronization of picture and sound also allowed for the disjunction of picture and sound. Further, the freedom of the movies from spatial confine-ment allowed a greater freedom in the kinds of sound they could use: natural sound effects, musical underscoring, distortion effects, subjective thoughts, and so forth. Whereas the history of the silent film could be summarized as
the discovery of the different means of producing an evocative succession of visual images, the history of the sound film is the discovery of the different means of producing an evocative integration of visual images and sound.
正如在某种程度上,小说的历史是一系列重要的小说的名单,话剧的历史是一系列重要话剧的名单那样,那么电影的历史也是一系列重要影片的的一个艺术中心。在电影的历史中,对那第具有重要意义的影片的讨论是特别相关的,因为个别一些影片不仅是历史进程中的里程碑,而且是当即对其它影片的导演产生影响的重大的艺术发现。虽然莎士比亚是受西涅卡的影响,布莱希特是受莎士比亚的影响,然而格里菲斯对福特的影响,福特对伯格曼的影响,伯格曼对伍迪阿仑的影响要更为直接。电影艺术家演员没有舞台那样的长年的传统可以依靠,他们却可以依靠他们同时代人的惊人发现。电影发行的国际性一直在保证任何重大的发现都能得到迅速的传播。

Just as the history of the novel is, to some extent, a catalogue of important novels and the history of drama a catalogue of important plays, the history of film as an art centers on important films. In film history, a discussion of the significant films is especially relevant, for the individual films are not only milestones on an historical path but also significant artistic discoveries that immediately influenced directors of other films. Although Skakespeare drew from Seneca, and Brecht from Shakespeare, even more immediate was the influence of Griffith on Ford or Ford on Bergman or Bergman on Allen. Without years of stage tradition to draw on, film artists have drawn on the exciting discoveries of their contemporaries. The internationalism if film distribution has always guaranteed the rapid dispersal of any significant discovery.

希望大家重视对电影历史的学习。至少不要 说出.一条安达鲁狗.是一个关于狗的故事。这是重庆大学的电影学院的某教授语。问题不在于 此人的水平,问题在于是谁决定请这种来高等学府任教的。这种人配办大学吗?据说,那个没有电影知识的人至今还在那里任教。为民除害,我就是要把这种人赶出中国电影教育界 。连电影史的知识都没有,就能请来大学讲课,看来该校是正规的大学还是野鸡

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电影史  续三
对八十五年的电影历史的研究使我得出一个基本的假说:任何一部真正伟大的影片的制作都缺不了需要单独一个人的头脑的视象和统一的智慧来创作出并控制住一部影片的。正如一个诗人一只笔,一个画家一块画布一样,一部影片只能有一个创作者。“作家理论”对影片就象对其它艺术一样是合用的。(翻到这里,使我回想起当“作家理论”“摄影机--笔”最初传到大陆中国时,那些综合论者竟以此来证明,“你看,外国也认为电影有文学性。”是不是有些近乎丧心病狂。连话都听不懂了。弱智!而这些人至今还被公认为专家呢,你们在读中国人写的文章时,细点人就可以发现这种人--译注)无论那位作者象格里菲斯那样在拍摄的进程中进行即兴创作,还是象有些影片制作者是根据事先构思好并写下来的计划拍摄的,那个人的头脑必须形成和控制那整个艺术作品。而电影在这方面所遇到的困难是,它那工作的庞大规模与繁杂性是跟这样单独一个作者相对立的。导演往往充当了一名技士,他在把别人已经经设计好的东西拼成一台机器(还往往是次货)。

那些把电影看作是劣等的艺术手段的人往往论争说,制作一部商业影片的条件把艺术上成功的机会化为零。电影艺术的伟大作品只是例外,中庸的工业产品是规律。把电影的历史看成是几十伟大的影片的历史是把历史简单化了。所有的影片,不论是大是小,都是在整个电影工业的关系中制作出来的。任何一部电影历史如果除了讨论作为艺术的电影外,还想揭示今天的电影世界的起源的话,那就要讨论那始终影响,并至今影响着艺术产品的三个相关的问题:电影作为生意,电影作为文化产品,和商品,电影作为机器。
  
A study of eighty-five years of film history has led me to make one base assumption: no truly great film has ever been made without the vision and unifying intelligence of a single mind to create and control the whole film. Just as there is only one poet per pen, one painter per canvas, there can be only one creator of a movie. The “auteur theory” is as valid for film as for any other art. Whether the auteur improvises the whole film as it goes along-as Griffith did–or whether the filmmaker works according to a preconceived and scripted plan, a single mind must shape and control the work of art. The
difficulty with movies, however, is that their very massiveness and complexity work against their having such an auteur. The director is often no more thana mechanic, bolting together a machine (often infernal) that someone else has designed.、
 

Those who view the film as an inferior artistic medium most frequently argue that the conditions of making a commercial film nullify its chances for artistic success. The great work of film art is the exception, the mediocre factory product the rule. To see the history of films as several dozen great movies is to simplify the history. All movies, great or small, have been made in the context of the entire film industry. Any film history that intends to reveal the genesis of today\’s film world must, in addition to discussing the film as.art, discuss three related problems that have always influenced the artistic product-and continue to influence it today: the film as business, the film as cultural product and commodity, and the film as machinery.

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电影史 续四
对八十五年的电影历史的研究使我得出一个基本的假说:任何一部真正伟大的影片的制作都缺不了需要单独一个人的头脑的视象和统一的智慧来创作出并控制住它。正如一个诗人一只笔,一个画家一块画布一样,一部影片只能有一个创作者。“作家理论”对影片就象对其它艺术一样是合用的。(翻译到这里,使我回想起当“作家理论”“摄影机--笔”最初传到大陆中国时,那些综合论者竟以此来证明,“你看,外国也认为电影有文学性。”是不是有些近乎丧心病狂。连话都听不懂了。弱智!而这些人至今还被公认为专家呢,你们在读中国人写的文章时,细点人就可以发现这种人--译注)无论那位作者象格里菲斯那样在拍摄的进程中进行即兴创作,还是象有些影片制作者是根据事先构思好并写下来的计划拍摄的,那个人的头脑必须形成和控制那整个艺术作品。而电影在这方面所遇到的困难是,它那工作的庞大规模与繁杂性是跟这样单独一个作者相对立的。导演往往充当了一名技士,他在把别人已经经设计好的东西拼成一台机器(还往往是次货)。那些把电影看作是劣等的艺术手段的人往往论争说,制作一部商业影片的条件把艺术上成功的机会化为零。电影艺术的伟大作品只是例外,中庸的工业产品是规律。把电影的历史看成是几十伟大的影片的历史是把历史简单化了。所有的影片,不论是大是小,都是在整个电影工业的关系中制作出来的。任何一部电影历史如果除了讨论作为艺术的电影外,还想揭示今天的电影世界的起源的话,那就要讨论那始终影响,并至今影响着艺术产品的三个相关的问题:电影作为生意,电影作为文化产品,和商品,电影作为机器。今天电影是亿万美元的买卖。导演,明星和剧本的选择往往掌握在生意人的手中,而不是掌握在艺术家的手中。一家公司若在一部影片里投资两千万元,那么它必须保证它的投资的安全。这样,商业价值就超过了艺术价值。好莱坞这个名字部分是娇艳的同义语,部分又是卖出的同义语。几十年来,美国的小说家,从费兹杰拉德到奈森尼尔. 威斯特把好莱坞的愚蠢的生意经当做是“美国梦”的庸俗空洞的象征。

如果今天一个有才能的年轻导演似乎面对着不能令人满意的困境--卖出或滚蛋,其实六十年来,所有的导演都曾面对同样的困境。从某种意义来说,电影制作者似乎是倒退回到电影历史的早期。但是从那时起,具有讽刺意味的是,每一项艺术创新都必须花更多的钱。
  
A study of eighty-five years of film history has led me to make one base assumption: no truly great film has ever been made without the vision and unifying intelligence of a single mind to create and control the whole film. Just as there is only one poet per pen, one painter per canvas, there can be only one creator of a movie. The “auteur theory” is as valid for film as for any other art. Whether the auteur improvises the whole film as it goes along-as Griffith did–or whether the filmmaker works according to a preconceived and scripted plan, a single mind must shape and control the work of art. The difficulty with movies, however, is that their very massiveness and complexity work against their having such an auteur. The director is often no more than a mechanic, bolting together a machine (often infernal) that someone else has designed.

 Those who view the film as an inferior artistic medium most frequently argue that the conditions of making a commercial film nullify its chances for artistic success. The great work of film art is the exception, the mediocre factory product the rule. To see the history of films as several dozen great movies is to simplify the history. All movies, great or small, have been made in the context of the entire film industry. Any film history that intends to reveal the genesis of today\’\'s film world must, in addition to discussing the film as.art, discuss three related problems that have always influenced the artistic product-and continue to influence it today: the film as business, the film as cultural product and commodity, and the film as machinery.

 Movies today are a billion-dollar business. The choice of directors, stars, and scripts is often in the hands of businessmen, not in the heads of artists. The company that invests $20,000,000 in a picture ought to be able to insure the safety of its investment. Commerical values outweigh artistic ones. The
name Hollywood, for some synonymous with glamor, is for others synonymous with selling out. For decades Hollywood\’\'s commercial crassness has served
American novelists-from F. Scott Fitzgerald and Nathaniel West to Gore Vidal-as a metaphor for the vulgar emptiness of the “American Dream.” If the gifted young director today seems to face a distasteful dilemma-sell out or get out-directors have faced the same dilemma for sixty years. filmmakers are,in a sense, regressing to the earliest period of film history. But every artistic innovation since then has ironically necessitated spending more money.

这次回昆明讲电影史的讲法,也就是观念将有所改变。第一不是专讲电影史,而是讲包括电视和录象的现代传播媒介发展史,因为电影作为一个单独的发阶段已告结束,但是它跟电视的密切关系可以说是是一种延续,可是电视又被VIDEO和DIGITAL所取代,但又是一种延续。所以必须合在一起讲。而且我这次讲的几个侧重点,如早期的北欧电影,德国电影是我们过去一向所忽略的,因为连我们讲世界电影史的教员都没有看过这些影片。现在我要给大家看相当大量的这方面的影片片段。

我真希望能有更多的人来听我讲。主要是看到更多电影历史中我们以前没有看到过的资料。可惜地处。边陲小镇的昆明,没有可能让更多的人来听。那就只好让昆明的同学们先听了。

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