真实电影 CINEMA VERITE 源自维尔托夫的电影眼睛派，维尔托夫的带摄影机的人你已经看过，维尔托夫就是用这种观念创造了电影真理报（KINO PRAVDA）也就是后来我们的新闻纪录电影制片厂出的新闻简
只看过一些片段。他那时的影片有《男人女人》（MASCULIN／FEMININ，1966），《一个中国女人》（LA CHINOISE，1967），《我知道关于他的两三件事》（TWO OR THREE THINGS I KNOW ABOUT
HER，1966），《英国的声音》（BRITISH SOUND），《东风》（WIND FROM THE EAST，1969），《美国制造》（NADE IN USA），《周末》（WEEKEND，1967）
The Russian film was born with the Russian film industry was a colony of Europe–of Pathe or Lumiere or Scandinavia’s Nordisk. No film was shot in Russia by a Russian company until some ten years after the invetion of the moving picture. The films of the next ten years (1907-1917) were strictly for local consumption (very few of them were exported). Costume films, horror films,and melodramas–the typical formulas of Europe and America–were the staples of the pre-1917 Russian film diet. The revolution changed all that.
Marxist political and economic philosophy, which had evolved in the age of machines, adopted the machine art as its own. Lenin considered the cinema the most influential of all the arts. Movies not only entertained but, in the process,molded and reinforced values. The film was a great teacher; with portable power supplies it could be shown to huge groups of people at the same time in every remote conrner of the new Soviet Union. While the flickering images held their audiences captive, the events on the screen emphasized the virtues of the new government and encouraged the Russian people to deveop those traits that would best further it. Whereas the American film came into the world as an amusing novelty, the Soviet film was created explicityly as teacher, bnot as clown. In 1919, after a chaotic year inwhich the Soviets had let the film industyry go its own commerical way, the Russian industry passed under government control.
The first harvest, however, was six years in coming.
“The foundation of film art is editing,” wrote Pudovkin in the preface to the German edition of his book on film technique. Whereas the German innovators concentrated on the look, the feel, the pictorial values of the individual shot, the Soviet innovators concentrated on the effects of joining the shots together. Like so many of the earlier innovations in film technique, the Soviet discoveries were the products of experience and experiment rather than abstract theorizing. Two significant accidents determined the paths the experimentation would take. The first was the shortage of raw film stock. As in the rest of Europe, film stock was scarce in Russia during and just after the war years. The Russian film famine was ever more severe, for the still fighting Red and White armies erected blockades against each other to keep supplies from getting through. Lacking quantities of stock, the Soviet filmmakers had to make the most of what they had.
One of the first to make something was Dziga-Vertov, who traveled about the country shooting newsreel footage with his camera, which he called his “Kino-Eye.”(kino glassa) Vertov then assembled this absolutely unstaged footage (Vertov insisted on unstaged reality throughout his career) into a newreel called Kino-Pravda, creating powerful emotional effects and educational results from the way he joined this real footage together. Vertov brings the ordinary,laborious tasks of building or rebuilding a nation to life (laying an airstrip,planting crops, finishing a tram line) by examining the progress of the task from many stirring and awesome angles that succeeded in endowing the ordinary with wonder. Vertov succeeds in giving inanimate machines both stature and vitality,revealing, as many of the later Soviet films would do, the powerful potential, the almost sexual fertility of the union of men and machines. Of course, one of the reasons for Vertov’s dynamic editing was that he had to shoot with mere scraps of film stock, and many of those scraps were very short.
在研究真实电影时，不应仅着眼于 VERITE，这是法文，而应该考虑到维尔托夫当年把他的影片叫做KINO PRAVDA。而这是PRAVDA，不是真理的意思，而是苏共中央的党机关报 真理报 的意思。维尔托夫的意思是，既然有一个印刷的真理报纸，那么我这个是电影的真理报。那么真理报是怎么回事呢，你们读过真理报吗？真理报作为我这个资料员的剪报工作之一（即每天必读，不管你爱看不爱看，这是革命工作）有幸读了十几年。我对它的真理不感兴趣。我对维尔托夫的兴趣是在他的剪辑。不过这是我个人的偏见。
接着我不谈我的偏见，还是继续介绍国外对KINO PRAVDA的论述。然后再是DIRECT FILM。