与张同道老师讨论真实电影

周老师:看了您关于真实电影的资料,特有用。看了电影,我觉得维尔托夫是一个天才,一个创造型人物,还想了解一些他的其他作品,象《关于列宁的三支歌曲》之类。另外,我还对法国让·鲁什特别感兴趣,不知道您有没有收藏到他的资料或作品?
      这几天我正在剪辑一部关于北京居委会选举的纪录片,拍了半年,近期我的研究生去美国留学,我让她给您带一盘,请您指教。
      收到了您的邮件,也给您发了邮件,如能联系上就太好了。
张老师,关于真实电影的现象比较复杂,我先告诉你一些
                                         
      我个人所了解的不完整的资料。
      真实电影 CINEMA VERITE 源自维尔托夫的电影眼睛派,维尔托夫的带摄影机的人你已经看过,维尔托夫就是用这种观念创造了电影真理报(KINO PRAVDA)也就是后来我们的新闻纪录电影制片厂出的新闻简
      报,但是剪辑方法不一样。电影真理报是一种宣传鼓动AGITATION。
      这也是十月革命初期搞的那种ECHELON AGITATIA,宣传鼓动车。爱森斯坦都过这种活动。你可以看一下好莱坞电影儿《REDS》,在影片最后就出现了宣传鼓动车。
      在六十年代法国发生了五月风暴,学生反政府,这时那些学生电影爱好者就组织了战斗队MILITIA,他们把自己的组织叫SLON,即俄文的大 象,也是由维尔托夫那里来的,我还没有查清楚。真实电影原来就是直
      接叫KINO PRAVDA,在这里,GODARD起了很大的作用。
      根据我自己的看法,GODARD是一个歪才。他后来在欧洲极受重视, 还不仅限于电影界,美术界,尤其是先锋派对他特别推崇。他在五月风暴那个时期拍的一些影片政治性非常强,但确实很难让一般人理解。我
      只看过一些片段。他那时的影片有《男人女人》(MASCULIN/FEMININ,1966),《一个中国女人》(LA CHINOISE,1967),《我知道关于他的两三件事》(TWO OR THREE THINGS I KNOW ABOUT
      HER,1966),《英国的声音》(BRITISH SOUND),《东风》(WIND FROM THE EAST,1969),《美国制造》(NADE IN USA),《周末》(WEEKEND,1967)
      我看到的那一段好象是《东风》里的,一个穿着象是维多利亚时代的女子跪坐在草地上读一本资产阶级的小说。然后在她后面站着一个好象的印地安人手里拿着一把印地安人用的战斧,用它来敲那个女人的脑袋, 敲一下说一句,江青教导我们说…………当时看的时候我全记得,那些话全都是记要上的,你可以把江青我林彪搞的那个纪要找出来看看。镜头是静止的。还有《周末》里的交通堵塞的一个长镜头。我没有办法理
解。这你们都可以弄来看看,估计电影资料馆里都有,你可以问问陈景亮。
      下面我接着把一些书上对CINEMA VERITE论述给你。

下面是美国史学家MAST的电影简史中的一段
                                            
      Soviet Montage
      The Russian film was born with the Russian film industry was a colony of Europe–of Pathe or Lumiere or Scandinavia’s Nordisk. No film was shot in Russia by a Russian company until some ten years after the invetion of the moving picture. The films of the next ten years (1907-1917) were strictly for local consumption (very few of them were exported). Costume films, horror films,and melodramas–the typical formulas of Europe and America–were the staples of the pre-1917 Russian film diet. The revolution changed all that.
Marxist political and economic philosophy, which had evolved in the age of machines, adopted the machine art as its own. Lenin considered the cinema the most influential of all the arts. Movies not only entertained but, in the process,molded and reinforced values. The film was a great teacher; with portable power supplies it could be shown to huge groups of people at the same time in every remote conrner of the new Soviet Union. While the flickering images held their audiences captive, the events on the screen emphasized the virtues of the new government and encouraged the Russian people to deveop those traits that would best further it. Whereas the American film came into the world as an amusing novelty, the Soviet film was created explicityly as teacher, bnot as clown. In 1919, after a chaotic year inwhich the Soviets had let the film industyry go its own commerical way, the Russian industry passed under government control.
The first harvest, however, was six years in coming.
“The foundation of film art is editing,” wrote Pudovkin in the preface to the German edition of his book on film technique. Whereas the German innovators concentrated on the look, the feel, the pictorial values of the individual shot, the Soviet innovators concentrated on the effects of joining the shots together. Like so many of the earlier innovations in film technique, the Soviet discoveries were the products of experience and experiment rather than abstract theorizing. Two significant accidents determined the paths the experimentation would take. The first was the shortage of raw film stock. As in the rest of Europe, film stock was scarce in Russia during and just after the war years. The Russian film famine was ever more severe, for the still fighting Red and White armies erected blockades against each other to keep supplies from getting through. Lacking quantities of stock, the Soviet filmmakers had to make the most of what they had.
One of the first to make something was Dziga-Vertov, who traveled about the country shooting newsreel footage with his camera, which he called his “Kino-Eye.”(kino glassa) Vertov then assembled this absolutely unstaged footage (Vertov insisted on unstaged reality throughout his career) into a newreel called Kino-Pravda, creating powerful emotional effects and educational results from the way he joined this real footage together. Vertov brings the ordinary,laborious tasks of building or rebuilding a nation to life (laying an airstrip,planting crops, finishing a tram line) by examining the progress of the task from many stirring and awesome angles that succeeded in endowing the ordinary with wonder. Vertov succeeds in giving inanimate machines both stature and vitality,revealing, as many of the later Soviet films would do, the powerful potential, the almost sexual fertility of the union of men and machines. Of course, one of the reasons for Vertov’s dynamic editing was that he had to shoot with mere scraps of film stock, and many of those scraps were very short.
在研究真实电影时,不应仅着眼于 VERITE,这是法文,而应该考虑到维尔托夫当年把他的影片叫做KINO PRAVDA。而这是PRAVDA,不是真理的意思,而是苏共中央的党机关报 真理报 的意思。维尔托夫的意思是,既然有一个印刷的真理报纸,那么我这个是电影的真理报。那么真理报是怎么回事呢,你们读过真理报吗?真理报作为我这个资料员的剪报工作之一(即每天必读,不管你爱看不爱看,这是革命工作)有幸读了十几年。我对它的真理不感兴趣。我对维尔托夫的兴趣是在他的剪辑。不过这是我个人的偏见。
接着我不谈我的偏见,还是继续介绍国外对KINO PRAVDA的论述。然后再是DIRECT FILM。

这里是维尔托夫自己写的文章,以后还要有他关于KINO-EYE  的文章。
      
研究生们,多读一些原汤原汁的东西,当头道贩子,不要当三道,四道贩子。

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