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重读周老师译文

周老师翻译的文章和书众多,近期想到把这些文章整理出来,做一个中英文对照阅读。一来可以帮助大家提高一下英文水平,二来可以加深对周老师讲课的理解。之前已经整理过走向真实的电影,后面先从《电影实践理论》开始。

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Theory of_film practice
By Burch Noel
Part I
Basic Elements  

Spatial and Temporal Articulations  

spatial adj.空间的
temporal adj.时的,时间的 (opp. spatial) 【语法】表示时间的,时态的。
articulations n. [解剖] 关节;连接;[生理] 发音(articulation的复数)


The terminology a film-maker or film theoretician chooses to employ is a significant reflection of what he takes a film to be.

terminology n. 术语,术语学;用辞
theoretician  n. 理论家,精通于理论的人
significant   adj. 重大的;有效的;有意义的;值得注意的;意味深长的
              n. 象征;有意义的事物


The French term decoupage technique or simply decoupage with its several related meanings is a case in point.

decoupage technique   分镜头技巧

In everyday practice, decoupage refers to the final form of a script, incorporating whatever technical information the director feels it necessary to set down on paper to enable a production crew to understand his intention and find the technical means with which to fulfill it, to help them plan their work in terms of his.

incorporating  adj. 合并的 v. 合并(incorporate的ing形式)

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支持,老师一直鼓励我们读原文的,不要总是读二手三手的东西

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By extension, but still on the same practical workaday level, decoupage also refers to the more or less precise breakdown of a narrative action into separate shots and sequences before filming. French film-makers, of course, are not the only ones to have a term for this procedure. Both English- and Italian-speaking film-makers have a similar term for this final version of the scriptcalled a "shooting script" in English and a copione in Italianthough they always speak of "writing" it or "establishing" it, thereby indicating that the operation the word describes is no more important in their minds than any other in the making of a film. A third French meaning of decoupage, however, has no English equivalent. Although obviously derived from the second meaning of a shot breakdown, it is quite distinct from it, no longer referring to a process taking place before filming or to a particular technical operation but, rather, to the underlying structure of the finished film.

extension   n. 延长;延期;扩大;伸展;电话分机
precise   adj. 精确的;明确的;严格的
procedure   n. 程序,手续;步骤
indicating   n. 表明;指示v. 表明;指示;要求(indicate的ing形式)
            adj. 指示的
equivalent   adj. 等价的,相等的;同意义的 n. 等价物,相等物
derived   adj. 导出的;衍生的,派生的v. 得到;推断(derive的过去分词);由…而来
distinct   adj. 明显的;独特的;清楚的;有区别的

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Formally, a film consists of a succession of fragments excerpted from a spatial and temporal continuum. Decoupage in its third French meaning refers to what results when the spatial fragments, or, more accurately, the succession of spatial fragments excerpted in the shooting process, converge with the temporal fragments whose duration may be roughly determined during the shooting, but whose final duration is established only on the editing table.

formally  adv. 正式地;形式上
succession   n. 连续;继位;继承权;[生态] 演替
excerpt   n. 摘录,引用 vt. 引用,摘录 vi. 摘录,引用
refers to   引用

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The dialectical notion inherent in the term decoupage enables us to determine, and therefore to analyze, the specific form of a film, its essential unfolding in time and space. Decoupage as a structural concept involving a synthesis is strictly a French notion. An American film-maker (or film critic, in so far as American film critics are interested in film technique at all) conceives of a film as involving two successive and separate operations, the selection of a camera setup and then the cutting of the filmed images. It may never occur to English-speaking film-makers or English-speaking critics that these two operations stem from a single underlying concept, simply because they have at their disposal no single word for this concept. If many of the most important formal break-throughs in film in the last fifteen years have occurred in France, it may be in part a matter of vocabulary.

dialectical   adj. 辩证的;辩证法的;方言的
notion      n. 概念;见解;打算
synthesis   n. 综合,[化学] 合成;综合体
strictly   adv. 严格地;完全地;确实地
conceive  vt. 怀孕;构思;以为;持有 vi. 怀孕;设想;考虑
disposal   n. 处理;支配;清理;安排

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An examination of the actual manner in which the two partial decoupages, one temporal and the other spatial, join together to create a single articulated formal texture enables us to classify the possible ways of joining together the spaces depicted by two succeeding camera setups and the different ways of joining together two temporal situations. Such classification of the possible forms of temporal and spatial articulations between two shots might seem to be a rather academic endeavor, but to my knowledge no one has previously attempted such a classification, and I believe that it may well open up some important new perspectives.

manner   n. 方式;习惯;种类;规矩;风俗

articulated   adj. 铰接式的;清晰的;组织缜密的;有关节的
v. 铰接(articulate的过去分词);明确地表达;使相互连贯

endeavor    n. 努力;尽力(等于endeavour)
vi. 努力;尽力(等于endeavour)
vt. 努力;尽力(等于endeavour)

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The two shots, first of all, may be absolutely continuous. In a certain sense, the clearest example of this sort of temporal continuity is a cut from a shot of someone speaking to a shot of someone listening,with the dialogue continuing without a break in voice-over. This is, of course, precisely what happens whenever a shot is followed by a reverse-angle shot. Although the term "straight match-cut," as is made clear later on in this chapter, refers more specifically to spatial continuity, it is also another example of absolute temporal continuity.If shot A shows someone coming up to a door, putting his hand on the doorknob, turning it, then starting to open the door,shot B, perhaps taken from the other side of the door, can pick up the action at the precise point where the previous shot left off and show the rest of the action as it would have "actually" occurred,with the person coming through the door and so on . This action could even conceivably be filmed by two cameras simultaneously,resulting in two shots that, taken together, preserve an absolute continuity of action seen from two different angles. To obtain as complete a continuity in the edited film, all we would have to do is cut the tail of shot A into the head of shot B on the editing table.

conceivably   adv. 令人信服地;可相信地;想得到地
preserve   vt. 保存;保护;维持;腌;禁猎 n. 保护区;禁猎地;加工成的食品

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A second possible type of temporal relationship between two shots involves the presence of a gap between them, constituting what might be called a temporal ellipsis or time abridgement. Referring again to the example of someone opening a door filmed by two cameras ( or by the same camera from two different angles ) , a part of the action might be omitted when these two shots are joined together ( in shot A someone puts his hand on the doorknob and turns it; in shot B he closes the door behind him ) . Even the most conventional films frequently use this technique as a means of tightening the action, of eliminating the superfluous . In shot A someone might perhaps start up a flight of stairs, and in shot B he might already be on the second or even the fifth floor. Particularly when a simple action such as opening a door and walking through it is involved, it might be emphasized that the ellipsis or abridgement can occur in any one of a large number of possible variations ; the "real" action might span some five or six seconds, and the time ellipsis might involve the omission of anything from a twenty-fourth of a second to several seconds, and might occur at any point in the action . This is equally true in the case of absolute temporal continuity; the transition between shots may occur anywhere. A film editor might maintain that in both cases there is only one "right" point at which to make a straight match-cut or abridge the action , but what he really means is that there is only one place where the shot transition will not be consciously noticed by the viewer.This may well be. But if we are seeking a film style that is less "smooth," that actually stresses the structures that it is based upon, a whole range of possibilities remains open .

presence n. 存在;出席;参加;风度;仪态
constitute   vt. 组成,构成;建立;任命
ellipsis   n. 省略;省略符号;脱漏
abridgement   n. 节略,缩写;减少
Referring again 再次提到
omitted   adj. 省略了的;省去的 v. 遗漏,省略(omit的过去分词)
conventional   adj. 符合习俗的,传统的;常见的;惯例的
tightening   v. 拧紧;使绷紧;扣紧(tighten的ing形式)
eliminating   adj. 排除的v. 消除(eliminate的ing形式)
superfluous   adj. 多余的;不必要的;奢侈的
omission   n. 疏忽,遗漏;省略;冗长

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